Order Sirenia / Order Carnivora / Order Artiodactyla

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Order Sirenia – Manatees and dugongs
___ Manatee (Trichechus manatus) Endangered
Manatees are fairly common in the tidal waters surrounding the island. As herbivores they take advantage of the abundant salt marsh grass, feeding at high tides. Although they regularly frequent the tidal area, they do require fresh water. They are temperature sensitive and at this latitude congregate at artificial warm water outflows in cool weather.

Order Carnivores – Carnivores
___ Raccoon (Procyon lotor) Common
Populations may fluctuate annually in relation to available resources, but even when numbers are low, racoons utilize most of the island ecosystems, including the salt marsh. They are omnivorous, becoming pests around campgrounds and venturing out on the open beach in search of food.
___ Mink (Mustela vison) Occasional
Because of the active, inquisitive nature of the mink, it may be seen in any habitat on the island. It is generally found in proximity to a salt or fresh water marsh where it obtains its common fare of aquatic insects, frogs, fish, and even birds and rodents.
___ River otter (Lutra canadensis) Occasional
Island otters seasonally change their habits. During cold months, when alligators are inactive, otters utilize most of the fresh water ponds. Generally, as the weather warms and alligators resume activity, prudence directs otters to the salt marsh where they feed mainly on fish. In fresh water ponds they feed on crayfish, insects, and some very small fish.
___ Harbor seal (Phoca viulina) Rare
One individual of this northern species has been found on Cumberland Island. Normal range of the harbor seal is from Canada south along the New England coast to Long Island.

Order Artiodactyla – Even-toed ungulates
___ Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Common
Island deer are small and exploit most habitats. They have struggled for years in competition with feral animals for resources, so status of the population cannot be meaningfully assessed. Numbes do cycle dramatically.
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