Class Amphibia

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Order Caudata-Salamanders
____ Mole salamander (Ambystoma talpoideum) Rare
An animal that burrows on land (fossorial habits) and breeds in temporary ponds. Larvae are present in ponds from January to May. Adults are most likely to be seen on cold, rainy nights in winter.
____ Two-toed amphiuma or congo eel (Amphiuma means) Common
Amphiumas are active at night in temporary and permanent freshwater sloughs and ponds. During drought they may be found in damp, underground burrows. Specimens are occasionally washed out of the Whitney Outlet into the ocean where they die in the salt water and float up on the beach.
____ Southern dusky salamander. (Desmognathus auriculatus) Uncommon
They reside in damp area and small streams, sloughs, or seep borders, often under cover. Duskies were more common during the 1970s than the 1990s.
____ Dwarf salamander (Eurycea quadridigitata) Uncommon
Dwarf salamanders are mostly aquatic in many freshwater habitats over the island, especially the Sweetwater slough system. They prefer shallow water with debris at the edge.
____ Central newt (Notophthalmus viridescens) Common
A mostly aquatic salamander found in freshwater sloughs and ponds. Some adults retain gills. No eft stage has been reported on the island. Their skin is especially toxic.

Order Anura – Frogs and Toads
____ Southern cricket frog (Acris gryllus) Abundant
A small frog, frequent around the borders of all freshwater habitats on the island except for the seepage areas along the west side adjacent to the salt marsh. They usually leap into shallow water when approached. Their call is a “chink-chink-chink” heard day and night.
____ Southern toad (Bufo terrestris) Abundant
As the name implies, this toad is terrestrial but breeds in temporary ponds. Juveniles are sometimes encountered in amazing numbers as they disperse during daylight hours in the spring and summer. Skin secretions of this species are toxic.
____ Eastern narrowmouth toad (Gastrophryne carolinensis) Common
These tiny dark frogs are secretive and rarely seen, but are found in all temporarily flooded, freshwater habitats of the island. Their lamb-like bleating calls are most frequently heard following summer and early autumn rains.
____Green treefrog (Hyla cinerea) Common
Whitney Lake, artesian ponds, and long-lasting temporary ponds in the interdune and forested areas provide habitat for this species. Loud choruses may be heard during the warm months, March – August.
____Pine woods treefrog (Hyla femoralis) Common
This frog of the forest is found mostly in scrub and pine or pine-oak forest areas with suitable freshwater ponds within a half-mile. Repetitive telegraph key sounding calls are common around ponds in early summer, but the frogs also call from trees and other terrestrial sites during rain.
____Barking treefrog (Hyla gratiosa) Uncommon
A large tree frog found in forested areas near ponds. Island distribution is spotty. Their loud, bugle-like call is distinctive and carries for relatively great distances.
____Squirrel treefrog (Hyla squirella) Abundant
This changeably colored frog is common over much of the wooded portion of the island including the scrub. It is frequently found in and around buildings. Its call sounds like a scolding squirrel.
____Spring peeper (Pseudacris crucifer) Common
Peepers have a spotty distribution on island. They are rarely seen away from ponds but call during winter and spring from many habitats.
____Little grass frog (Pseudacris ocularis) Abundant
This secretive frog is rarely seen, but is very common on the island. It is the smallest U.S. frog as an adult. Calls may be heard from flooded grassy areas in interdune, scrub, freshwater marshes, and vegetated ponds.
____Pig frog (Rana grylio) Common
Lakes, sloughs, and semi-permanent freshwater ponds are the preferred habitat of pig frogs. They are rarely grouped in large breeding choruses, but rather call singly or in low numbers while in the water. Their call is an explosive pig-like grunt heard mostly in spring and summer.
____Southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala) Abundant
Leopard frogs are very common in all freshwater habitats on the island, including seepage pools on the west side of the island adjacent to the salt marsh (possibly brackish water). Tadpoles are common throughout the year because breeding takes pface over an extended period. Adults are nocturnal but may be seen basking during the day around freshwater.
____Eastern spadefoot (Scaphiopus holbrookii) Common
A very secretive, fossorial, and nocturnal toad, usually observed after torrential rains any time of year. Breeding choruses are deafening and sound like groups of crows. Tadpoles are carnivorous and common in the interdune sloughs.
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